Oral arguments will be scheduled in the spring and a final ruling could come in the summer, right in the middle of the 2012 presidential campaign.
The Obama administration asked the court to consider the law during the current term.
A number of federal court rulings have come down on both sides of the healthcare law.
President Obama signed the law last year after a year-long partisan battle in Congress.
Legal challenges have focused on the part of the law dealing with an individual mandate that requires most Americans to buy health insurance.
Opponents say it exceeds the federal government's constitutional authority.
Supporters say the individual mandate is no different from requiring drivers to purchase car insurance.
(Copyright 2011 by VERTEXNews/Newsroom Solutions)