The measure, which has already been approved by the House of Representatives, now advances to President Barack Obama's desk to be signed into law.
The bill passed by unanimous consent, a parliamentary term for a voice vote that doesn't require the return of the entire Senate chamber. GOP leaders had agreed to the maneuver.
Among other things, the bill provides for roughly 1,500 new law enforcement agents, new unmanned aerial vehicles, new forwarding operating bases and $14 million in new communications equipment.
The measure has attracted strong Democratic and Republican support. Homeland Security Secretary Janet Napolitano praised the plan last week, saying it would "add important, permanent resources to continue bolstering security on our Southwest border."
"These assets are critical to bringing additional capabilities to crack down on transnational criminal organizations and reduce the illicit trafficking of people, drugs, currency and weapons," she said.
The bill is funded in part by imposing higher fees on personnel companies that bring foreign workers into the United States.
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